A flat foot is the loss of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot. The deformity is usually asymptomatic and resolves spontaneously in the first decade of life or occasionally progresses into a painful, rigid form that causes significant disability. All at birth have flat feet, and noticeable foot arches are seen at around the age of 3years. Flat foot is more prevalent in children, and females are more predisposed to this condition than their male counterparts in adulthood.
Characteristics/ Clinical presentation
Risk factors for the development of flat feet
The aim of physiotherapy is to minimize pain, increase foot flexibility, strengthen the weak muscles, and educate patients to prevent any injury.
Pain management can be maintained through activity modification, thermotherapy, massage, Electrical stimulation and ultrasound. Electrical stimulation will increase blood circulation and prompting the healing process, and decreasing discomfort and edema.
Flexibility exercises are consist of passive ROM exercise of the ankle and all foot joints; including Stretching of gastrocnemius soleus complex and peroneus brevis muscles to facilitate varus and foot adduction
Foot orthotics such as shoe inserts are used to support the arch for foot pain. . Custom orthotics can be prescribed from a registered chiropodist and physiotherapist, and it helps to correct the foot and ankle biomechanics, as well as prevent the arch from collapsing, reducing strain along the heel and plantar fascia.